1. The city-states of northern Italy differed from most of Europe because in the Italian city-states a. the feudal nobility played a much more important

1. The city-states of northern Italy differed from most of Europe because in the Italian city-states a. the feudal nobility played a much more important role in government than elsewhere in Europe. b. no guilds or corporate institutions developed. c. the feudal nobility refused to form alliances with urban elites. d. commercial activity flourished due to a monopoly of trade in Mediterranean areas. 2. The republicanism of the city-states proved precarious for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. The natural disasters of the period from 1350 to 1450 encouraged the drift towards despotism. b. the city-states had come to rely on mercenaries to fight their wars. c. there was no tradition of republicanism in the region and, therefore, its roots were never very deep. d. conflict between nobles and merchants led one group, or both, to turn to one-man rule 3. The chivalric code that had expressed social values in the Middle Ages was changed in the Renaissance so that a. birth now counted more than wealth or landholding in defining a person’s social status. b. military virtues and honor were no longer important in one’s life. c. ambition and achievement, especially in politics, business, and art, were recognized as components of honor. d. the society was no longer elitist or aristocratic, but rather egalitarian and democratic.

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