Using the entries in your Annotated Bibliography, write a paper in which you discuss and (if appropriate) take positions on the following in your topic

Using the entries in your Annotated Bibliography, write a paper in which you discuss and (if appropriate) take positions on the following in your topic area: 1.Current theories, explanations, proposed relationships among constructs, and absence of theories about meaningful phenomena in your topic area. 2.Contradictions, inconsistencies, and ambiguities regarding findings related to theories in your topic area. Support your paper with as many of the resources selected for the Annotated Bibliography assignment as possible. Length: 4-6 pages not including title and reference pages Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Review APA Form and Style. Listed are samples of my annotated bibliographies. Casman, E. A., & Fischhoff, B. (2008). Risk communication planning for the aftermath of a Plague bio attack. Risk Analysis, 28(5), 1327-1342. doi: 6924.2008.01080. Bioterrorism is a form of terrorism where there is the intentional release of biological agents (bacteria, viruses, or other germs).  Each of which can cause extreme harm and possible death on a chosen population. Diagrams of how a plague bio attack could develop is later used in most cases to identify factors shaping infection risks in many possible circumstances.  The influence diagram and associated details provide a reference that allows risk communicators to identify key messages to prepare or prevent.   It can also be used to answer specific questions in whatever unique situations arise, considering both the conditions of the attack and the properties of the attacked populations. Wang, Y., Yuan, S., Tao, H., Wang, L., Zhang, Z., & Liu, C. (2015). Production and cell surface display of recombinant anthrax protective antigen on the surface layer of attenuated bacillus anthracic. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31(2), 345-352. doi: To investigate the surface display of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) on attenuated Bacillus anthracic, a recombinant B. anthracic strain, named AP429 was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and the anthrax PA.  Crerecombinase action at the loxP sites excised the antibiotic marker.  Western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PA was successfully expressed on the S-layer of the recombinant antibiotic marker-free strain.  Nevertheless extensive proteolysis degradation of the hybrid protein SLHs-PA, quantitative ELISA revealed that approximately 8.1 × 10^sup 6^ molecules of SLHs-PA were gained from each Bacillus cell.  Moreover, electron microscopy assay indicated that the typical S-layer structures could be clearly observed from the recombinant strain micrographs. Tufts, J. A., M., Cal fee, M. W., Lee, S. D., & Ryan, S. P. (2014). Bacillus thuringiensis as a surrogate for bacillus anthracic in aerosol research. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30(5), 1453-61. doi: Characterization of contender surrogate spores prior to experimental use is important to confirm that the substitute characteristics are as closely alike as possible to those of the pathogenic agent of interest.  This review compares the physical properties essential to spores of Bacillus anthracic (Ba) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that impact their movement in air and interaction with surfaces, including size, shape, and mass.  Also evaluated is the impact of irradiation on the physical properties of both Bacillus species.  Many physical features of Bt and Ba have been found to be similar and, while Bt is considered typically non-pathogenic, it is in the B. cereus group, as is Ba.  When cultured and sporulated under similar conditions, both microorganisms share a similar cylindrical pellet shape.  While spore size, morphology, and other physical properties can vary among strains of the same species, the variations can be due to growth/sporulation conditions and may, therefore, be controlled.  Growth and sporulation conditions are likely among the most important factors that influence the representativeness of one species, or preparation, to another.  Comparative studies should be performed to test the hypothesis that viable Ba and Bt spores will behave similarly when suspended in the air (as an aerosol) and to compare the known micro scale characteristics versus the macro scale response. Joosse, A. P., & Milward, H. B. (2014). Organizational versus individual attribution: A case study of jemaah islamiyah and the anthrax plot. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 37(3), 237. Retrieved from Recent studies have taken an important first step in examining which terrorist groups, based on their organizational characteristics and the characteristics of the environment in which they operate, are more likely to pursue chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons.  This approach, however, assumes that individuals who perform events act on behalf of the organization to which they primarily belong.  Using the case of Jemaah Islamiyah’s alleged attempt to develop the pathogenic bacterium Bacillus anthracic, or anthrax, the authors reveal the importance of including individual variables to the analysis.  In particular, the attendance by several key Jemaah Islamiyah members at an Al Qaeda-affiliated training camp is argued to set a chain of events into motion that ended in their involvement in the anthrax cultivation program. Hennessey, K., & Bennett, B. (2013, Apr 18). FBI arrests 1 in inquiry on poison mail; Investigators believe the Mississippi suspect sent letters containing ricin to president      Obama and a senator. Los Angeles Times Retrieved from Ricin-laced letters like the ones sent to President Obama and a U.S. senator can be fatal, but they are such ineffective weapons they were more likely planned to disturb than to deliver a lethal blow.  At its most dangerous, ricin can kill a victim six to 12 hours after exposure and there is no antidote.  But on a practical level it is very challenging to deliver a killer dose. In fact, the poison powder has been in the mail before, and it hasn’t sickened anyone. The uncertainties about white powdered substances and deadly envelopes reminded memories of the anthrax scare in the weeks after the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.  This terroristic act was simply used to scare the nation and gain attention. Ricin is a poison found naturally in castor beans.  If castor beans are chewed and swallowed, the released ricin can cause injury or death.  Ricin can be made from the waste material left over from processing castor beans.  Ricin can take many forms: It can be a powder, a mist, a pill or pellet, and can be dissolved in water and other liquids.  This means that a person can contract ricin poisoning via inhalation or ingestion; the initial symptoms of ricin poisoning depend upon both the degree and route of exposure. English, B. (2012, Sep 16). Terrorism’s forgotten victim. Boston Globe Retrieved from The devastation of the World Trade Center was still new when the letters began arriving at media companies and the offices of two US senators.  The first bioterror attack in American history came and went rapidly, fading into the shadow of 9/11’s mass destruction of the worst terroristic attack in the history of our Country.  Seven days after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, anonymous letters laced with deadly anthrax spores began arriving at media companies and congressional offices.  Over the following months, five people died from inhaling anthrax and 17 others were infected after exposure. Our focus was directly on the World Trade Center during these terroristic acts aiming for an intended person(s). Willman, D. (2011, Mar 23).  Report faults army in anthrax attacks; officials missed signs of Mental problems in the scientist suspected in the deadly mailings, a federal panel finds. Los Angeles Times Retrieved from Among the circumstantial evidence against Ivins was his enthusiasm to bring to market a new anthrax vaccine, of which he was a co-inventor, and his decades-long fixation with the college sorority Kappa Kappa Gamma, whose office in Princeton, N.J., was next to to a mailbox where Ivins is believed to have dropped anthrax-laced letters. Ivins was a brilliant Scientist whose obsession with anthrax made him the leading suspect in the deaths of the 5 victims.  Before any arrest were made Ivins had committed suicide in July of 2008.

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